No matter what your fitness goals are, one of the main determinants of whether you will reach them is your hormonal status. This hormone test measures the key hormones that must be in balance and play an important role in regulating sexual health, fertility and athletic performance.
Testosterone is an anabolic hormone responsible for bone and muscle strength, as well as mood, energy and sexual function.
Most testosterone is strongly bound to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). This test measures the proportion of unbound testosterone which is available to the body's tissues.
SHBG is a protein that binds tightly to testosterone and oestradiol. Changes in SHBG can affect the amount of hormone available for use by the body's tissues.
In men, oestradiol also known as oestrogen, is essential for maintaining bone health, regulating cholesterol levels, and supporting healthy brain function.
Levels of FSH in men rise with age, but can also indicate testicular damage and reduced sperm production. Low levels of FSH are detected when men are not producing sperm.
LH is responsible for stimulating testosterone production and sperm generation. Raised LH can signal that the testes are not producing enough testosterone and is relevant when evaluating hypogonadism.
A hormone which is produced in the pituitary gland and plays a role in reproductive health. Raised levels in men can cause reduced sex drive, lack of energy, erectile dysfunction and fertility problems.
Progesterone has two major effects in men - it promotes testosterone production, and also modulates the effects of excessive oestrogen.
IGF-1 is involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including bone growth, muscle growth and repair, and the development of the nervous system. It also helps regulate metabolism, including glucose metabolism and fat metabolism.
IGF-1 plays a role in maintaining tissue and organ function throughout adulthood. It helps regulate bone density, muscle mass, and cognitive function, and it has been implicated in the aging process.
Cortisol and DHEA-S play important roles in regulating physiological processes in the body. Cortisol has a catabolic effect which mobilises the body’s nutritional resources for fuel. DHEA-S has an opposing anabolic effect and converts food into living tissue. In order to achieve your fitness goals cortisol and DHEA-S must be in proper balance.
The cortisol test measures 'the stress hormone' cortisol which mobilises the body’s nutritional resources in stressful situations. Prolonged elevation of cortisol can cause fatigue, immune dysfunction, and impact sex hormones.
A long-acting adrenal hormone which regulates energy production, the immune system, brain chemistry, bone formation, muscle tone and libido. DHEA-S is converted by the body into testosterone and other sex hormones.
Your thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate growth and energy expenditure. Thyroid disorders are quite common, and many people don’t have any symptoms at all. This thyroid test screens for the thyroid hormones that play a key role in regulating the body’s metabolism.
Communicates with the thyroid gland to produce T3 and T4 which regulate metabolic functions. High TSH thyroid test levels indicates an underactive thyroid, and low levels an overactive thyroid.
Measures the thyroxine that is freely circulating and able to regulate metabolism. High FT4 thyroid test levels indicate an overactive thyroid, and low levels an underactive thyroid.
Measures the triiodothyronine that is freely circulating. High FT3 thyroid test levels indicate an overactive thyroid, and low levels an underactive thyroid.
Insulin resistance can lead to difficulty losing weight, distinct abdominal fat, fatigue, bloating and sugar cravings. Identifying insulin resistance early and committing to lifestyle changes can ultimately help the progression to diabetes.
If you have diabetes your body doesn't process glucose effectively.
A hormone produced by the pancreas that helps to control blood glucose levels and plays a role in controlling the levels of carbohydrates and fats stored in the body.
The HOMA-IR score is a calculation used to assess insulin resistance. A higher score indicates a greater degree of insulin resistance, and is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
HbA1c measures the average blood sugar level over the past 2-3 months. The higher the percentage, the higher the average blood sugar level has been over the past 2-3 months.
HbA1c can be expressed as a percentage (DCCT unit) or as a value in mmol/mol (IFCC unit).
Lipids and cholesterol are fat-like substances in your blood. Some are necessary for good health, but when you have a high level of cholesterol in your blood, a lot of it ends up being deposited in the walls of your arteries and other vital organs. Lifestyle choices including diet, exercise and alcohol intake can all influence cholesterol levels and your risk of developing heart disease.
Total cholesterol includes both HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Cholesterol is essential for many processes in the body, including the formation of cell membranes, the production of hormones, and the metabolism of vitamin D.
LDL cholesterol is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, as it can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, a condition where plaque builds up in the arteries and can increase the risk of heart disease.
HDL cholesterol is often referred to as "good" cholesterol, as it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and can protect against the development of heart disease.
Triglycerides are the main storage form of fatty acids in the body and a source of energy. High levels of triglycerides are associated with cardiovascular disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.
Non-HDL cholesterol is considered an effective lipid measurement for assessing cardiovascular disease risk as it is believed to reflect levels of 'bad' cholesterol.
This simple iron test measures how much iron you have in your blood, as well as the amount of iron you have stored in your body. This iron test can be used to diagnose anaemia or monitor an existing iron deficiency. This iron test can also be used to investigate iron overload syndrome (haemochromatosis) which is an inherited condition where your body cannot remove excess iron.
An essential trace element is necessary for forming healthy red blood cells and for some enzymes.
A protein that binds iron and transports it around the body (also known as TIBC). High levels indicate iron deficiency.
Low levels typically indicate iron deficiency, and high levels can indicate iron overload.
Ferritin is a marker of iron stores in the body, and is used to assess iron status. Low levels can indicate iron deficiency, which is a common nutritional deficiency that can lead to anaemia, fatigue, and impaired immune function.
The B-group vitamins are a collection of water-soluble vitamins essential for various metabolic processes. Most of these vitamins can’t be stored by the body and have to be consumed regularly in the diet.
Active vitamin B12 is the biologically active form of vitamin B12 that is essential for many physiological processes in the body, including the production of red blood cells, DNA synthesis, and nerve function.
Found naturally in food, such as green leafy vegetables. Folate (vitamin B9) plays a role in DNA creation and is important for the production of red blood cells.
Like vitamins, minerals are substances found in food that your body needs for growth and health. There are two kinds of minerals - macrominerals and trace minerals. Your body needs just small amounts of trace minerals which include iron, copper, zinc and selenium.
Found in vegetables, fish, shellfish, red meat, grains, eggs, chicken, liver, garlic, brewer's yeast, wheat germ, and enriched breads. Helps protect cells from damage, and is needed for thyroid gland function.
Found in organ meats, shellfish, chocolate, mushrooms, nuts, beans, and whole-grain cereals. Helps protect cells from damage, and is needed for forming bone and red blood cells.
Found in liver, eggs, seafood, red meats, oysters, certain seafood, milk products, eggs, beans, peas, lentils, nuts and whole grains. Needed for healthy skin, wound healing, and helps fight illnesses and infections.
A commonly cited range for the copper to zinc ratio is 0.7 and 1.0. Studies have noted that ratios above 1.0 may be associated with higher levels of inflammation and oxidative stress.
Calcium and vitamin D play a critical role in maintaining bone health. When you don’t get enough calcium, you increase your risk of developing osteoporosis and stress fractures. This blood test measures your total and corrected calcium levels, your vitamin D levels, and also checks for gout.
Although called a vitamin, vitamin D (25-OHD) is actually a steroid hormone which is activated by sunshine on the skin. It is essential for bone strength as it helps the intestines absorb calcium.
Calcium is important in building strong bones and teeth, but it also plays a key role in other functions including muscle contraction, nerve function, blood clotting, and enzyme function.
Corrected calcium adjusts for changes in serum albumin levels, providing a more accurate measure of the biologically active form of calcium, and is therefore a better reflection of the body's calcium status.
If too much urate is produced or not enough is excreted, it can accumulate and lead to gout – an inflammation that occurs in joints.
Phosphate is a mineral which is essential for the formation of bones and teeth. It is also essential for many other cellular processes including energy metabolism and the formation of DNA and RNA.
Magnesium and calcium work together closely to maintain strong bones, and magnesium deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis.
Inadequate recovery from exercise or overtraining can result in inflammation and muscle damage. In addition to c-reactive protein and creatine kinase, this panel also measures homocysteine which is another recognised risk factor for cardiovascular disease, as well as osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s.
A high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) test measures low levels of CRP and may be used to help evaluate an individual for risk of cardiovascular disease
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) is an indirect measure of the degree of inflammation present in the body. Increased blood levels of certain proteins (such as fibrinogen or immunoglobulins, which are increased in inflammation) increase the ESR.
LDH is an enzyme required during the process of turning sugar into energy for your cells. Only a small amount is usually detectable in the blood, however, when cells are damaged they release LDH into the bloodstream.
When muscle cells are injured creatine kinase enzymes leak out of the cells and enter the bloodstream. Prolonged elevated creatine kinase after periods of rest can be a sign of overtraining.
An amino acid normally present in very small amounts in all cells of the body. Homocysteine is a product of methionine metabolism - one of the 11 ‘essential’ amino acids that must be derived from the diet.
The full blood count is used as a broad screening test to check for such disorders as anaemia (decrease in red blood cells or haemoglobin), infection, and many other diseases. It is actually a group of tests that examine different parts of the blood. Results from the following tests provide the broadest picture of your health.
Responsible for carrying oxygen around the body. A high count can increase the risk of heart attack or stroke, whilst a low count can mean your body isn’t getting the oxygen it needs.
A good measure of your blood's ability to carry oxygen throughout your body. Elevated haemoglobin can be an indicator of lung disease, whilst a low result indicates anaemia.
A measure of the percentage of red blood cells in the total blood volume. Elevated haematocrit can increase the risk of heart attack or stroke.
MCV is a measure of the average size of the red blood cells. The MCV may be elevated in anaemia caused by vitamin B12 or folate deficiency. Whereas decreased MCV may be seen in iron deficiency anaemia for example.
MCH is a calculation of the average amount of oxygen-carrying haemoglobin inside a red blood cell. Large red blood cells tend to have a higher MCH, while small red cells would have a lower value.
MCHC is a calculation of the average concentration of haemoglobin inside a red cell. Decreased MCHC is seen in iron deficiency anaemia and conditions such as thalassaemia.
RDW is a calculation of the variation in the size of your red blood cells. A high RDW value may indicate the presence of certain medical conditions, such as anaemia, liver disease, or vitamin B12 or folate deficiency.
Responsible for fighting infection. A high count can indicate recent infection and even stress, whilst a low count can result from vitamin deficiencies, liver disease and immune diseases.
A type of white blood cell. Can increase in response to allergic disorders, inflammation of the skin and parasitic infections. They can also occur in response to some infections or to various bone marrow malignancies.
A type of white blood cell. Can increase in response to infection as well as inflammatory disorders, and occasionally with some types of leukaemias. Decreased monocyte levels can indicate bone marrow injury or failure and some forms of leukaemia.
A type of white blood cell. Can increase with bacterial or viral infection, leukaemia, lymphoma, radiation therapy or acute illness. Decreased lymphocyte levels are common in later life but can also indicate steroid medication, stress, lupus and HIV infection.
A type of white blood cell. Can increase in response to bacterial infection, inflammatory disease, steroid medication, or more rarely leukaemia. Decreased neutrophil levels may be the result of severe infection or other conditions.
Responsible for blood clotting and healing. A high count can indicate a risk of thrombosis, whilst a low count can lead to easy bruising.
Your liver processes drugs and alcohol, filters toxic chemicals, stores vitamins and minerals, and makes bile, proteins and enzymes. This liver function test examines enzymes and other markers for evidence of damage to your liver cells or a blockage near your liver which can impair its function.
Bilirubin tests are use to screen for or to detect and monitor liver disorders or haemolytic anaemia.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme located mainly in the liver and the bones. High levels can indicate liver disease.
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme created mainly by the liver and the heart. High levels can indicate damage to your liver caused by alcohol, drugs or hepatitis.
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme mainly produced by the liver. A good indicator of liver damage caused by alcohol, drugs or hepatitis.
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is a liver enzyme which can be used to diagnose alcohol abuse as it is typically raised in long term drinkers.
Albumin is a protein which keeps fluid from leaking out of blood vessels, nourishes tissues, and carries hormones, vitamins, drugs, and ions like calcium throughout the body. Low levels can indicate malnutrition or other health problems.
A measure of all of the proteins in the plasma portion of your blood. Proteins are important building blocks of all cells and tissues - they are important for body growth and health.
Your kidneys filter waste from your body and regulate salts in your blood. They also produce hormones and vitamins that direct cell activities in many organs and help to control blood pressure. When the kidneys aren't working properly, waste products and fluid can build up to dangerous levels creating a life-threatening situation.
Sodium is important for maintaining fluid balance in the body and for proper nerve and muscle function.
Potassium is important for nerve and muscle function, including regulating heart rhythm, and is also involved in fluid balance.
Chloride is important for maintaining fluid balance and for the proper functioning of the digestive system.
Higher than normal levels suggests trouble maintaining pH balance either by failing to remove carbon dioxide or because of an electrolyte imbalance. Elevations may be seen with severe vomiting, chronic lung problems and some hormonal disorders. Low levels may be seen with chronic diarrhoea, diabetic ketoacidosis and kidney failure.
A high concentration of this waste product can indicate dehydration or that your kidneys aren’t working properly.
A waste molecule generated from muscle metabolism, and an accurate marker of kidney function.
The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measures how well your kidneys filter the wastes from your blood and is the best overall measure of kidney function.
Proteins, fats, and carbohydrates are broken down by stomach acids, enzymes produced by the pancreas, and bile from the liver. This process also releases micronutrients. This blood test measures the levels of enzymes produced by the pancreas.
An enzyme produced by the pancreas which is released into the digestive tract to help digest fatty foods.
An enzyme made mainly by the pancreas which is released from the pancreas into the digestive tract to help digest starch in our food.
Macroscopy looks at stool colour and formation, as well as for evidence of mucous or blood which may require further investigation.
Brown is the colour of normal stool. Other colours may indicate abnormal gastrointestinal conditions.
A formed stool is considered normal. Variations to this may indicate abnormal gastrointestinal conditions.
Mucous production may indcate the presence of an infection, inflammation or malignancy.
This test is used to detect bleeding in the digestive tract, and is used in Australia's National Bowel Screening program. This test can detect tiny traces of blood in the stool, and can indicate the presence of disease at a relatively early stage when stools may appear normal.
Microscopy is performed for detection of blood cells which may indicate infections or inflammation, as well as markers of maldigestion. The presence of food remnants may indicate poor digestion from too little gastric acid or reduced output from the pancreas.
Imbalances in gut pH influence short chain fatty acid production and their effect.
The presence of red blood cells in the stool may indicate the presence of an infection, inflammation or haemorrhage.
The presence of white blood cells in the stool may indicate the presence of an infection, inflammation or haemorrhage.
The presence of food remnants may indicate maldigestion.
The presence of meat fibres may indicate maldigestion from too little gastric acid or reduced output from the pancreas.
The presence of vegetable fibres may indicate maldigestion from gastric hypoacidity or diminished pancreatic output.
Too much fat in your faeces is called steatorrhoea which can be a sign of malabsorption. This means your body either isn’t absorbing nutrients properly or isn’t making the enzymes or bile needed to digest food effectively.
The presence of starch grains may indicate carbohydrate maldigestion.
Significant numbers of bacteria are normally present in the healthy gut. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in particular, are essential for gut health because they help to inhibit gut pathogens and carcinogens, control pH, reduce cholesterol and synthesise vitamins.
Bifidobacteria are considered "friendly” bacteria that are found in fermented foods like yogurt and cheese, and are used in probiotics. The gut needs these bacteria to perform several jobs, including breaking down foods, taking in nutrients, and preventing overgrowth of "bad” pathogenic bacteria.
Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria are essential for gut health because they prevent overgrowth of gut pathogens, and contribute to managing intestinal pH, cholesterol, and synthesis of vitamins and disaccharidase enzymes.
Most E. coli strains are harmless and play an essential role in keeping the digestive system healthy, helping to digest food and producing Vitamin K. However, some E. coli bacteria are pathogenic and can cause disease.
Together with other healthy bacteria and fungi, enterococci work to keep unhealthy (pathogenic) bacteria from flourishing and helps to restore the balance of the microbiome.
These bacteria are pathogenic and are those that have the potential to cause disease in the gut.
Aeromonas are bacteria that can cause an acute diarrhoeal illness that normally clears without treatment. It is a fairly common cause of gastroenteritis, which occurs most often throughout the warm summer months in most countries.
Campylobacter infection (campylobacteriosis) is a bacterial infection which most commonly causes gastroenteritis (also known as 'gastro') but may also cause illness affecting the entire body.
Salmonella infection usually results from ingestion of the bacteria from contaminated food, water or hands. Eggs, milk, meat or poultry are particularly high risk foods.
Shigella infection (shigellosis) is a type of gastroenteritis caused by Shigella bacteria. The symptoms of Shigella infection include fever, diarrhoea, (sometimes with blood and mucous), vomiting and stomach cramps.
This infectious bacteria can cause gastroenteritis and symptoms beyond the gut. Symptoms include diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, fever and abdominal pain. It can mimic appendicitis or Crohn's disease.
Our gut bacteria can be divided into ‘bad’ and ‘good’. The good ones for the most part benefit us, whreas the bad 'pathogenic' ones can cause disease. Pathogens are usually present in small quantities in the microbiome, however in excessive amounts they can have adverse effects on the body. The beneficial bacteria of the microbiome have a protective function against colonisation by pathogenic bacteria.
Klebsiella forms part of the normal gut flora in small numbers, but can be an opportunistic pathogen
Citrobacter is considered an opportunistic pathogen and therefore can be found in the gut as normal flora. It is occasionally implicated in diarrhoeal disease, particularly C. freundii, C. diversus and C. koseri.
Pseudomonas is found in water and soil as well as fruits and vegetables, and is considered an opportunistic pathogen.
Part of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract, though has been shown to be an independent causative agent of intestinal disorders. May also play a role as an opportunistic organism in enteric infection due to other pathogens. Food has been implicated as a vehicle of infection.
Streptococcus is common in the gut flora. With the exception of very rare cases, streptococcus species are not implicated in gastric disease.
Enterococcus species are part of normal flora in the human gut, but can however be implicated in a variety of infections of which urinary tract infections are the most common.
Most E. coli strains are harmless and play an essential role in keeping the digestive system healthy, helping to digest food and producing Vitamin K. However, some E. coli bacteria are pathogenic and can cause disease.
This test looks for evidence of candida or other yeast overgrowth. Whilst yeasts are a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract, they may become an opportunistic pathogen after disruption of the mucosal barrier, imbalance of the normal intestinal flora or impaired immunity. This can be caused by things like antibiotics, antacids and stress.
Candida albicans is the main type of yeast which colonises the human body. It normally lives in the gastrointestinal tract and other areas of the body without causing problems, but imbalance in the microbiome can lead to overgrowth.
Geotrichum yeasts can be found in soil, dairy products and in human skin and mucosae, and are usually only considered an opportunistic pathogen in immune-compromised hosts. Geotrichum may play a role in IBS.
A common environmental yeast which is not considered pathogenic in nature. These yeasts are ubiquitous in the environment and can be found on fruits, vegetables and other plant materials.
Whilst yeasts are a normal inhabitant of the gut, they may become an opportunistic pathogen after disruption of the mucosal barrier, imbalance of the normal intestinal flora or impaired immunity. This can be caused by things like antibiotics, antacids and stress.
Some gut problems can be a consequence of an undetected gut infection. A significant number of IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) cases could actually be due to undiagnosed gut parasites such as Blastocystis hominis and Dientamoeba fragilis.
Cryptosporidium is a microscopic parasite that causes the diarrhoeal disease cryptosporidiosis. Both the parasite and the disease are commonly known as "Crypto."
Symptoms of Giardia infection can occur with 3 to 25 days and may include diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, pale greasy foul-smelling stools, stomach cramps, passing excess gas, bloating, weight loss and fatigue.
Amoebiasis is a parasitic disease (also known as amoebic dysentery) caused by infection with Entamoeba histolytica or another amoeba (for example, E. dispar). The disease may not cause symptoms in most individuals.
Some research suggests that people with IBS may be more likely to have Blastocystis hominis organisms in their stool.
The bacteria can be present in the gut for months or year and misdiagnosed as IBS. Infection can cause diarrhoea, abdominal pain and cramping, anal itching, nausea, loss of appetite, headache, dizziness, depression, weight loss and fatigue.
Download and print your pathology form from your i-screen dashboard.
Take your form to one of our affiliated collection centres to have your sample taken.
Visit the collection centre within one hour of waking for the most accurate hormone test measurements.
Fast from all food and drink (other than water) for at least 8 hours, and no more than 12 hours prior to your blood test.